ñàéò: Ìîñòû öåíòðàëüíîãî Ëîíäîíà
ðàçäåë: Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò
Tower Bridge | London Bridge | Cannon Street Railway Bridge | Southwark Bridge | Millennium Bridge | Blackfriars Railway Bridge | Blackfriars Bridge | Waterloo Bridge | Hungerford Bridge | Westminster Bridge | Lambeth Bridge | Vauxhall Bridge












Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò ::: London Bridge

Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò èìååò äîâîëüíî ïðîñòîé, àñêåòè÷íûé âíåøíèé âèä, êîòîðûé êîíòðàñòèðóåò ñ íàñûùåííîé è èíòåðåñíîé èñòîðèåé ìîñòà. Ñîâðåìåííûé Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò ñóùåñòâóåò íåäîëãî - ÷óòü áîëåå 30 ëåò. Ýòî ïîñëåäíèé â ñåðèè ìîñòîâ, êîòîðûå âîçâîäèëèñü ïðèìåðíî íà îäíîì è òîì æå ìåñòå åù¸ ñ ðèìñêèõ âðåì¸í (è âñå îíè íàçûâàëèñü Ëîíäîíñêèìè). Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò áûë ïåðâûì è äîëãîå âðåìÿ (äî XVIII âåêà) îñòàâàëñÿ åäèíñòâåííûì ìîñòîì Ëîíäîíà, îòñþäà åãî íàçâàíèå.

ñîñåäíèå äîñòîïðèìå÷àòåëüíîñòè

Åñëè âñòàòü íà ìîñòó ëèöîì ê ñåâåðíîìó åãî êîíöó, òî ìîæíî óâèäåòü: èñòîðèÿ ñòðîèòåëüñòâà

1) íåñêîëüêî ïîêîëåíèé äåðåâÿííûõ ìîñòîâ
       I-XII âåêà

Ïåðâûé ìîñò ÷åðåç Òåìçó áûë ïîñòðîåí åù¸ ðèìëÿíàìè â 40õ ãîäàõ, âî âðåìåíà çàâîåâàíèÿ èìè Áðèòàíèè, êîãäà îíè, ïåðåáðàâøèñü ÷åðåç Òåìçó íà å¸ ñåâåðíûé áåðåã, îñíîâàëè òàì ñâî¸ ïîñåëåíèå – Ëîíäèíèóì, ñòàâøåå ñî âðåìåíåì ñòîëèöåé Áðèòàíñêîé ïðîâèíöèè Ðèìñêîé èìïåðèè (è äàâøåå íà÷àëî Ëîíäîíó). Ìîñò ýòîò ïîñòîÿííî ðàçðóøàëñÿ (èç-çà øòîðìîâ, ïîæàðîâ èëè àòàê êîðàáëåé âèêèíãîâ) è âîññòàíàâëèâàëñÿ.

2) ñòàðûé Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò
       1209 - 1832 ãã.

Ýòî ïåðâûé êàìåííûé ìîñò ÷åðåç Òåìçó, îí áûë ïîñòðîåí â 1176-1209 ãîäàõ, ïðè æèçíè òð¸õ êîðîëåé - Ãåíðèõà II, Ðè÷àðäà Ëüâèíîå Ñåðäöå è åãî áðàòà Äæîíà.

Ìîñò ïîêîèëñÿ íà ïî÷òè äâóõ äåñÿòêàõ îïîð èç âÿçà, âáèòûõ â ðå÷íîå äíî (ìåæäó îïîðàìè âîçíèêàëè áóðíûå ïîòîêè âîäû – ñóùåñòâîâàëà çàáàâà ïðîõîäèòü èõ íà ëîäêàõ), ñâåðõó áûë êàìåííûé íàñòèë. Îñòàíîâèòü âòîðæåíèå íà ìîñò ñ þãà áûëè ïðèçâàíû ïîäú¸ìíûé ìîñò è âîðîòà.

Ñòàðûé Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò áûë çàñåë¸í (ÿâëåíèå, íåðåäêîå â ñðåäíåâåêîâüå) - íà í¸ì ðàñïîëàãàëèñü äîìà, â òîì ÷èñëå ìíîãîýòàæíûå (äîìà ðàñïîëàãàëèñü ïî îáåèì ñòîðîíàì ïðîåçæåé ÷àñòè, èõ âåðõíèå ýòàæè ñîåäèíÿëèñü ìåæäó ñîáîé àðêàìè, ïðåâðàùàÿ çà÷àñòóþ ïðîåçæóþ ÷àñòü â òóííåëü), òîðãîâûå ëàâêè, ìàãàçèíû, ñêëàäû, âîäÿíûå ìåëüíèöû, âîäîíàïîðíàÿ áàøíÿ, ÷àñîâíÿ ñâ. Òîìàñà Áåêêåòà (íàä ñðåäíåé îïîðîé), äîì Nonsuch House (ïîñòðîåííûé â Ãîëëàíäèè, à çàòåì ïåðåâåç¸ííûé â ðàçîáðàííîì âèäå â Ëîíäîí è çàíîâî ñîáðàííûé íà Ëîíäîíñêîì ìîñòó). Ïî ñâîåé ñóòè ìîñò áûë îáû÷íîé ëîíäîíñêîé óëèöåé. Ìîñò èìåë äâà óðîâíÿ, ñîåäèí¸ííûõ ñïèðàëüíîé ëåñòíèöåé, – óëè÷íûé è íèæíèé, äîñòóïíûé ñ âîäû. Íà þæíûõ âîðîòàõ ìîñòà íà Stone Gate House ðàçìåùàëèñü ïèêè, íà êîòîðûå íàñàæèâàëè ãîëîâû êàçí¸ííûõ ïðåñòóïíèêîâ (òàì ïîâèñåëà è ãîëîâà Îëèâåðà Êðîìâåëÿ).

Ìîñò íåîäíîêðàòíî ðàçðóøàëñÿ (êàê-òî ñêîâàâøèé Òåìçó ë¸ä ðàçðóøèë íåñêîëüêî îïîð), ñòðàäàë îò ïîæàðîâ (â òîì ÷èñëå áûë ïîäîææ¸í âî âðåìÿ ìÿòåæà Äæåêà Êýéäà, êîãäà ìÿòåæíèêè çàðåçàëè ìíîãèõ æèòåëåé ìîñòà; ìÿòåæ áûë ïîäàâëåí, à ãîëîâà Êýéäà îêàçàëàñü íà ïèêå).

Äî 1750 ãîäà (êîãäà áûë îòêðûò Âåñòìèíñòåðñêèé ìîñò) Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò îñòàâàëñÿ åäèíñòâåííûì ìîñòîì ÷åðåç Òåìçó, ðàñïîëîæåííûì â öåíòðàëüíîì Ëîíäîíå (â çàïàäíîì Ëîíäîíå â 1729 ãîäó áûë ïîñòðîåí ìîñò Ïóòíè).

Ê 1763 ãîäó âñå çäàíèÿ íà ìîñòó áûëè ñíåñåíû, à ñàì ìîñò ðàñøèðåí.

Ñ 1800 ãîäà íà÷àëè âîçíèêàòü ïðåäëîæåíèÿ î ñòðîèòåëüñòâå íîâîãî ìîñòà - ê òîìó âðåìåíè Ëîíäîíñêîìó ìîñòó èñïîëíèëîñü ïî÷òè 600 ëåò.

3) íîâûé Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò
       1831-1967 ãã.

Ñóùåñòâîâàëî íåñêîëüêî ïðîåêòîâ íîâîãî ìîñòà, áûë óòâåðæä¸í ïðîåêò Äæîíà Ðåííè (John Rennie), ñòðîèòåëüñòâîì ðóêîâîäèë åãî ñûí – òîæå Äæîí Ðåííè, ò.ê. îòåö åãî ê íà÷àëó ñòðîèòåëüñòâà ñêîí÷àëñÿ.  1825 ãîäó ëîðä-ìýð Ëîíäîíà Äæîí Ãàððàòò (John Garratt) çàëîæèë ïåðâûé êàìåíü ìîñòà â ïðèñóòñòâèè ãåðöîãà Éîðêà.  1831 ãîäó ñîñòîÿëîñü îôèöèàëüíîå îòêðûòèå íîâîãî ìîñòà êîðîë¸ì Âèëüÿìîì IV. Íîâûé ìîñò áûë ïîñòðîåí ïðèìåðíî â 60 ì çàïàäíåå ñòàðîãî, òàê ÷òî âî âðåìÿ ñòðîèòåëüñòâà íåêîòîðîå âðåìÿ ðÿäîì ñòîÿëè äâà ìîñòà, äî òåõ ïîð ïîêà â 1832 ãîäó ñòàðûé Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò íå áûë ðàçðóøåí. Ïðè ðàçðóøåíèè ìîñòà íàøëè ÷åëîâå÷åñêèå îñòàíêè, êîòîðûå ïðîñòî âûêèíóëè â ðåêó. Ïîçæå âûÿñíèëîñü, ÷òî ýòî áûëè, âåðîÿòíî, îñòàíêè Ïèòåðà Êîóë÷¸ð÷à (Peter Colechurh), êîòîðûé ðóêîâîäèë ñòðîèòåëüñòâîì ñòàðîãî ìîñòà, óìåð â 1205 ãîäó è áûë ïîõîðîíåí â ñêëåïå íà ìîñòó.

Íîâûé ìîñò (êîòîðûé èíîãäà íàçûâàþò ìîñòîì Ðåííè) èìåë 4 îïîðû è 5 ãðàíèòíûõ ñâîäîâ, â 1902 ãîäó ìîñò áûë ðàñøèðåí.

 ÕÕ âåêå ìîñò ïîñòåïåííî ïåðåñòàë ñïðàâëÿòüñÿ ñ âñ¸ óâåëè÷èâàþùèìñÿ òðàíñïîðòíûì ïîòîêîì (è îñåäàë ïðèìåðíî íà 2,5 ñì êàæäûå 8 ëåò) è, íàêîíåö, áðèòàíñêîå ïðàâèòåëüñòâî âûñòàâèëî ìîñò íà ïðîäàæó. Åãî êóïèë îäèí àìåðèêàíñêèé áèçíåñìåí çà 2,5 ìëí. äîëëàðîâ (åñòü ëåãåíäà, ÷òî îí ïåðåïóòàë Ëîíäîíñêèé è Òàóýðñêèé ìîñòû è êóïèë íå òîò ìîñò, êîòîðûé õîòåë). Ìîñò ðàçîáðàëè â 1967 ãîäó è ïî ÷àñòÿì ïåðåâåçëè â Àìåðèêó, ãäå â 1971 ãîäó åãî âíîâü ñîáðàëè. Òåïåðü îí ñîåäèíÿåò áåðåãà êàíàëà íà îçåðå Õàâàñó â Lake Havasu City, øòàò Àðèçîíà.

4) ñîâðåìåííûé Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò
       ñóùåñòâóåò ñ 1973 ãîäà

Êàê òîëüêî ìîñò Ðåííè ðàçîáðàëè, áûëî ïðèíÿòî ðåøåíèå î ñòðîèòåëüñòâå íà åãî ìåñòå íîâîãî Ëîíäîíñêîãî ìîñòà, â 1973 ãîäó ñîñòîÿëîñü åãî îôèöèàëüíîå îòêðûòèå êîðîëåâîé Åëèçàâåòîé II (íà ìîñòó â ÷åñòü ýòîãî ñîáûòèÿ åñòü ìåìîðèàëüíàÿ äîñêà).

èíòåðåñíûå ôàêòû

Ñâîåé íàöèîíàëüíîé îñîáåííîñòüþ - ëåâîñòîðîííèì äîðîæíûì äâèæåíèåì - Àíãëèÿ îáÿçàíà ñòàðîìó Ëîíäîíñêîìó ìîñòó. Îáÿçàòåëüíîå ëåâîñòîðîííåå äâèæåíèå ïî íåìó áûëî ââåäåíî â 1756 ãîäó ñïåöèàëüíûì óêàçîì. Óêàç çàêîíîäàòåëüíî çàêðåïèë äàâíî ñëîæèâøóþñÿ òðàäèöèþ - êîííûå ýêèïàæè ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî åçäèëè ïî ëåâîé ñòîðîíå äîðîãè, ÷òîáû êó÷åð ñëó÷àéíî íå çàäåë õëûñòîì ïðîõîæåãî, èäóùåãî ïî òðîòóàðó. Ñ òåõ ïîð ëåâîñòîðîííåå äâèæåíèå äëÿ àíãëè÷àí ñòàëî òðàäèöèîííûì.

13 èþíÿ 1984 ãîäà âîåííûé êîðàáëü Þïèòåð, ïîêèäàÿ Ëîíäîíñêèé ïóë (çàïàäíîé ãðàíèöåé êîòîðîãî ÿâëÿåòñÿ Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò), ñòîëêíóëñÿ ñ ìîñòîì, ïðè÷èíèâ åìó è ñåáå çíà÷èòåëüíûå ïîâðåæäåíèÿ.

íîâîñòè

11 èþëÿ 2009 ãîäà
 ýòîò ñóááîòíèé äåíü ïðàçäíîâàëè 800 ëåò ñ îòêðûòèÿ ïåðâîãî êàìåííîãî ìîñòà ÷åðåç Òåìçó - ñòàðîãî Ëîíäîíñêîãî ìîñòà. Ñîâðåìåííûé Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò ïðèøëîñü çàêðûòü äëÿ òðàíñïîðòà èç-çà ïðàçäíè÷íûõ öåðåìîíèé, ñðåäè êîòîðûõ áûëè ïàðàäíîå øåñòâèå ïî ìîñòó, öåðêîâíàÿ ñëóæáà, ïðîõîäèâøàÿ íà ñåðåäèíå ìîñòà - ïðèìåðíî â òîì ìåñòå, ãäå íà ñòàðîì Ëîíäîíñêîì ìîñòó ðàñïîëàãàëàñü ÷àñîâíÿ ñâ. Òîìàñà Áåêêåòà; òðàäèöèîííûé ïðîãîí îâåö ÷åðåç ìîñò - áåñïîøëèííûé, êàê ýòî çàâåëîñü â äðåâíîñòè, äëÿ ïî÷¸òíûõ ãðàæäàí ëîíäîíñêîãî Ñèòè è çà îïðåäåë¸ííóþ ïëàòó äëÿ îñòàëüíûõ æåëàþùèõ.

15 èþëÿ 2009 ãîäà
Ñòàëî èçâåñòíî, ÷òî â êîíêóðñå ïðîåêòîâ çàñåë¸ííîãî (âîçâðàò ê ñòàðîé èäåå!) Ëîíäîíñêîãî ìîñòà ïîáåäèë Ëîðè ×åòâóä (àðõèòåêòóðíîå áþðî Chetwood Architects). Åãî ôóòóðèñòè÷åñêèé ïðîåêò ïðåäóñìàòðèâàåò âîçâåäåíèå íà ìîñòó äâóõ (ïî îäíîìó íà êàæäîé îïîðå) âûñîêèõ âåðòèêàëüíûõ ñîîðóæåíèé - ôåðìû äëÿ âûðàùèâàíèÿ ïðîäóêòîâ ïèòàíèÿ è òîðãîâîãî êîìïëåêñà ñ ðûíêîì äëÿ ïðîäàæè âûðàùåííîé íà ìîñòó ïðîäóêöèè, ðåñòîðàíàìè, êàôå è æèëûìè ïîìåùåíèÿìè. Æèçíåäåÿòåëüíîñòü ìîñòà ïëàíèðóåòñÿ ïîääåðæèâàòü çà ñ÷¸ò ñîâðåìåííûõ ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ òåõíîëîãèé - èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ ñîëíå÷íûõ áàòàðåé, âåòðÿíûõ òðóáèí, ñáîðà äîæäåâîé âîäû. Ñ áîêîâ íà óðîâíå âîäû ê ìîñòó ïëàíèðóåòñÿ ïðèñòðîèòü ïèðñ è ïëàâó÷èå îáùåñòâåííûå ðûíêè.

:::


ÑÑÛËÊÈ
(íà àíãë. ÿçûêå)

Ñàéò, ïîñâÿù¸ííûé ñòàðîìó Ëîíäîíñêîìó ìîñòó
http

Âèä ñ âîçäóõà íà Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò, íà äâèæåíèå ïî íåìó è ïîä íèì :-)
video mov, 23 ñåê., 3,5 ìá



 òèï ìîñòà: áàëî÷íûé, ïîëûé; æåëåçîáåòîííûé
 êîëè÷åñòâî îïîð: 2
 íàçíà÷åíèå: àâòîìîáèëüíûé, ïåøåõîäíûé
 ãîä îòêðûòèÿ ñîâðåìåííîãî ìîñòà: 1973
 (ïåðâûé êàìåííûé ìîñò íà ýòîì ìåñòå áûë ïîñòðîåí â 1209 ãîäó)

ÔÎÒÎ (êëèêàáåëüíî)
:::


Ñòàðûé Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò.
Èçîáðàæåíèå ñ ñàéòà OldLondonBridge




Íîâûé Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò â êîíöå XIX âåêà.
Èçîáðàæåíèå ñ ñàéòà HistoGrafica




Íîâûé Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò â íàøå âðåìÿ (íàõîäèòñÿ â ÑØÀ, ñîåäèíÿåò áåðåãà êàíàëà íà îçåðå Õàâàñó)




Ñîâðåìåííûé Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò




Ïîäñâåòêà ìîñòà â ò¸ìíîå âðåìÿ ñóòîê




Ëîíäîíñêèé ìîñò áóäóùåãî - ïðîåêò Ëîðè ×åòâóäà





ðåêëaìa æåíñêèå ñóìêè èíòåðíåò ìàãàçèí , âûáîð.


Tomtop| Zeblaze| XT175| xiaomi m365| xiaomi Roborock S50| Roborock S50| Wltoys| VISUO XS812| Viltrox EF-M2| Vernee T3 Pro| Ulefone Power 5| Tronxy X5S| SONOFF| SJCAM SJ8 PRO| Rowin WS-20| MXQ PRO| MJX Bugs 5W| lixada| LEMFO LEM8| lemfo lem4 pro| LEMFO| koogeek| kkmoon| JJPRO X5| hubsan h501s x4| hubsan h501s| Hubsan| hohem isteady pro| goolrc| Feiyu| Feiyu Tech G6| Ender 3| Creality Ender 3| Bugs 5W| anet a8 3d printer review| Anet| Anet A4| Anet A6| Anet A8| andoer| ammoon| amazfit bip|

IT Support| POS label| System Integration| Software development| label printing| QR code scanner| wms| vending machine| barcode scanner| SME IT| it solution| rfid tag| rfid| rfid reader| it outsourcing| IRLS| inventory management system| digital labelling| barcode label| Self Service Kiosk| Kiosk| Voice Picking| POS scanner| POS printer| System Integrator| printing labels| Denso| barcode| handheld| inventory management| warehouse management| stock taking| POS| Point of sale| Business service| Web Development| vending| app development| mobile app development| handheld device| terminal handheld| inventory management software| pos system| pos software| pos hardware| pos terminal| printer hong kong| receipt printer| thermal printer| thermal label printer| qr code scanner app| qr scanner app| online qr code scanner| qr code scanner online mobile| qr code scanner download| mdm| mobile solutions| mdm solutions| mobile device management|

banner| Backdrop| Bannershop| Ebanner| Eprint| foamboard| hk print| hong kong printing| Printing| backdrop| print100| 印刷| 宣傳單張| 貼紙| 貼紙印刷|

electric bike| best electric bike| electric bikes for adults| e bike| pedal assist bike| electric bikes for sale| electric bike shop| electric tricycle| folding electric bike| mid drive electric bike| electric trike| electric mountain bike| electric bicycle| electric bike review| electric fat bike| fat tire electric bike| women's electric bike |

office| Property Agent| Hong Kong Office Rental| hong kong office| office building| Commercial Building| Grade A Office| leasing| Rent Office| office for sale|

Central Plaza| The Centrium| LHT Tower| China Building| AIA Central| Crawford House| Exchange Tower| AIA Tower| World Wide House| One Kowloon| The Gateway | One Island South| Jardine House| Millennium City | Exchange Square| Times Square | Pacific Place| Admiralty Centre| United Centre| Lippo Centre| Shun Tak Centre| Silvercord| The Center| Mira Place| Ocean Centre| Cosco Tower| Harcourt House| Cheung Kong Center|

school| international school of hong kong| international school| school in Hong Kong| primary school| elementary school| private school| UK school| british school| extracurricular activity| Hong Kong education| primary education| top schools in Hong Kong| Preparatory| best international schools hong kong| best primary schools in hong kong| primary school hong kong| private school hong kong| british international school| extra-curricular| school calendars| boarding school| school day| Bursary| British international school Hong Kong| British school Hong Kong| English primary school Hong Kong| English school Hong Kong| International school Hong Kong| School Hong Kong| boarding school Hong Kong| best school in Hong Kong| School fees|

Mailchimp|​​​​​​​ Hubspot| Sendinblue| ActiveCampaign| Aweber| Maichimp| benchmark| SMS|

electric bike| Best smartwatch| Best Wilreless earphones|